By International Development Research Centre
Ebook by means of overseas improvement learn Centre
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Extra resources for A Decade of Reform: Science & Technology Policy in China
Meanwhile, outside China, the world‘s S&T had developed rapidly during the years when the Cultural Revolution‘s radical politics occupied China‘s national attention. The market economies of the capitalist world, including those of China‘s Asian neighbours, were increasingly basing their further growth and development on productivity gains brought about by technological and managerial innovations (―intensive growth‖) while China and others with centrally planned economies continued to rely on the mobilization of new sources of labour and capital inputs to expand economic activity (―extensive growth‖).
Human-resource issues It would be impossible for an international mission to ignore the enormous problem bequeathed to Chinese science by the Cultural Revolution. For almost 10 years, between 1966 and 1976, not only was scientific research, especially agricultural research, in disarray, but also scientific education in schools and universities was severely disrupted. There must be few scientists over the age of 40 whose training and research were unaffected. We were impressed with the extent to which this legacy is recognized in China today and by the steps that are being taken to remedy it.
Functions of an NSI. General functions Specific functions Core functions of government Policy formulation – Monitoring, review, and formulation of policies and, in some countries, plans concerning national S&T activities and resource allocation – Linkage to other policy domains (such as the economy, trade, education, health, environment, and defence) – Allocation of resources to S&T from overall budgets and first-order allocation among activities – Creation of incentive schemes to stimulate innovation and other technical activities – Provision of a capacity for implementing policies and coordinating appropriate activities – Provision of a capacity for forecasting and assessing the likely directions of technical change Regulatory – Creation of a national system for metrology, standardization, and calibration – Creation of a national system for the identification and protection of intellectual property – Creation of national systems for the protection of safety, health, and the environment Implementation functions Financing – Management of financing systems appropriate to the implementation of the other functions of the system – Use of government‘s purchasing power as a stimulus to innovation in the production of the goods and services it requires Performance – Execution of scientific or technological programs, HRD and capacity building Infrastructure including research of all kinds and technological development – Provision of scientific services – Provision of mechanisms to link R&D outputs to practical use – Provision of linkages to regional and international S&T activities – Provision of mechanisms for evaluating, acquiring, and diffusing best-practice technologies – Creation of innovative goods, processes, and services embodying the results of S&T activities – Provision of programs and facilities for the education and training of S&T personnel – Creation of institutional capacity in S&T – Provision of mechanisms to maintain the vitality of the national S&T community – Stimulation of public interest in and support of national initiatives in S&T – EOM of information services (including libraries, databases, statistical services, a system of indicators, and communications systems) – EOM of technical services (such as metrology, standardization, and calibration) – EOM of a system of awarding, recording, and protecting intellectual property – EOM of mechanisms to ensure the protection of safety, health, and the environment – EOM of major national facilities for research Note: These functions — both policy-related and implementation-related — are carried out by different stakeholders in any country‘s national system of innovation, with the particular combination being unique to that country.
A Decade of Reform: Science & Technology Policy in China by International Development Research Centre