By A. Roy
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Extra info for A First Course on Aerodynamics
As this process takes place the temperature of the fluid element would change. The new temperature of the fluid element at this state would be defined as T∗ . com 46 A First Course on Aerodynamics Fundamentals of Inviscid Compressible Flow Using the above equation we can define a characteristic Mach number given by We can think of another hypothetical state change. e. by keeping the overall entropy unaltered; which is possible if the process is reversible adiabatic). The pressure and temperature that the fluid element would attain after coming to halt is called as stagnation pressure, denoted by p 0 and stagnation temperature, denoted by T0 respectively.
In this condition, the nozzle passes maximum possible mass flow rate. If the back pressure is reduced with an intention of increasing the mass flow rate, the nozzle does not respond to it. com 54 A First Course on Aerodynamics Fundamentals of Inviscid Compressible Flow The pressure that exists in the ambient atmosphere or in a downstream reservoir where the nozzle discharges is called as back pressure. If the pressure at the exit plane of the nozzle is above the back pressure, the flow further expands to adjust with that back pressure.
Since the qmis very large near the nose, close to 90º, a curved detached shock called as a bow shock is formed. The portion of the shock near the nose of the body is normal. The distance between the nose of the body and the normal portion of the shock is called as shock stand off distance. Since the shock is formed away from the body surface the enormous heat formation across the shock wave at hypersonic speeds is largely carried away by the flow and a lesser amount of heat reaches the surface, which is desirable.
A First Course on Aerodynamics by A. Roy