By Laura McPherson
Tommo So is a Dogon language with nearly 60,000 audio system in Mali, West Africa. As purely the second one complete grammatical description of a Dogon language, this quantity is a serious source for fixing the secret of Dogon's genetic association with different languages in Africa. Tommo So is an SOV language with setting apart nominal morphology and agglutinative verbal morphology; suffixes at the verb mark tense/aspect/negation in addition to topic contract. The phonology is delicate to degrees of verbal morphology in that variable vowel concord applies much less usually as one strikes to outer layers of the morphology. The tone approach of Tommo So is of typological curiosity in either its phonological and syntactic instantiations. Phonologically, it's a two-tone method of H and L, yet those designated tones distinction with a surface-underspecified tone. Grammatically, the lexical tone of a be aware is usually overwritten by way of syntactically-induced overlays. for instance, an inalienable noun's tone can be changed with L whether it is possessed by means of a non-pronominal possessor, and by way of both H or HL if the possessor is pronominal. The language has additionally innovated a chain of locative quasi-verbs and concentration debris delicate to pragmatic components like sure bet.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Tommo So
It contrasts with /ɛ/ in backness (and rounding), /u/ and /a/ in height, and /o/ in ATR. 4 /a/ The vowel /a/ is a low central unrounded vowel. It can sometimes be reduced to extra-short [a̯], as in [kádá̯ná] ‘oldest man in the village’, but the pronunciation of this reduced vowel is lower than that of [ə], the allophone of /u/ and /i/. Given that it is neither front nor back, I contrast it in the following pairs with both front mid /ɛ/ and back mid /ɔ/. 5 /ɛ/ The vowel /ɛ/ is a front mid unrounded vowel, speciﬁed as [-ATR].
5), minimal pairs for polysyllabic words will almost uniformly have vowel contrasts in multiple positions. For example, we ﬁnd pairs like àná ‘rain’ and ɛ̀nɛ́ ‘goat’, but *ànɛ́ or *ɛ̀ná. A minimal pair is, by deﬁnition, two words that diﬀer in only a single segment or feature value, but in Tommo So, a change in the feature value of one vowel is copied onto all other vowels in the word. Since this is only a diﬀerence in a single parameter, in this sense àná and ɛ̀nɛ́ are a minimal pair, diﬀering only in vowel quality (/a/ vs.
Since liquids cannot appear word-initially, /r/ is only contrastive in non-initial positions. 17 /l/ The phoneme /l/ is a lateral alveolar approximant with only this single allophone. The following minimal pairs show /l/ contrasting for rhoticity, continuancy, and nasality. Like /r/, it cannot appear in word-initial position, and hence all minimal pairs show /l/ word-medially. 1 Vowel inventory Tommo So has seven short vowel phonemes, each of which has an equivalent long vowel. In the practical orthography, long vowels are written as two consecutive vowels (/aa/ for IPA /aː/) since there are no contrasts between long vowels a sequence of two like vowels.
A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura McPherson