By Dennis J. Stanford
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Extra info for Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. S. 2. 3. 58 million years BP Pliocene-Quaternary (current ice age) glaciation began FOREWORD Across Atlantic Ice is an account of two complex and treacherous journeys, one long ago and the other very recent. One is postulated to have occurred across a perilous mosaic of periglacial environments of the Northern Hemisphere during the peak of the last major glaciation some eighteen or twenty millennia ago. The other is a twenty-year intellectual excursion far outside the academic mainstream by two scholars to explore possible answers to the questions of who first came to the Americas, when, whence, and how.
The only artifacts found in Beringia that appear to be related to Clovis are clearly younger, so if they are indeed related they were made by Clovis descendants, not Clovis ancestors. Because Clovis technology appears in North America before the Canadian ice-free corridor could support human life, it would have to date to an earlier interglacial period. But there is no clear evidence of such an early occupation of the Americas. A logical conclusion is that Clovis ancestors must have bypassed the great continental glaciers on their way to the New World.
From these ocean edges, people were drawn toward enormous populations of marine invertebrates, fish, mammals, and birds, particularly in the northerly latitudes. Boats were needed, tailored clothing that was insulated and waterproof was imperative, ingenuity and new knowledge were essential, and new harvesting technologies were required. So with both a push and a pull, the rich maritime environments of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic increasingly became part of the human niche. As people expanded this niche, it brought them to the shores of North America—the immense human journey across the globe had reached a new continent, whence it continued until the Americas were fully colonized.
Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture by Dennis J. Stanford