By Yiping Huang
The winning agricultural reform conducted in China within the Nineteen Seventies began encountering mounting problems from the mid-1980s, as development premiums dropped and costs elevated sharply. This examine analyzes the several reform measures brought in China some time past two decades, and gives an entire research of the prevailing agricultural procedure. via cautious exam of the political economic system and the several coverage suggestions, the writer argues that China may still push ahead with its market-oriented reform measures and introduce the pains of foreign pageant into the rural area.
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Additional resources for Agricultural Reform in China: Getting Institutions Right (Trade and Development)
It would have had no reason to develop its large-scale heavy industry. But, to the Chinese leadership, development of heavy industry was paramount. Heavy industry was seen as the source of modernisation and of productivity growth in other sectors. To pursue the heavy-industry oriented development strategy, China cut off its economic linkages with the outside world by raising barriers and imposing direct control to trade. Thus in the pre-reform period China relied on import substitution. This message was clearly carried in policy statements by trade officials, cited by Lardy (1992:16): Export is for import and import is for the country's socialist industrialisation (Ye Jizhuang, then Minister of Foreign Trade).
4 Most of them, however, were policy slogans without careful evaluation and planning. 5 The Chinese economy is sometimes divided into three broad categories (industries): 'primary' industry includes agriculture and mining; 'secondary' industry is the industrial processing sector; and 'tertiary' industry is the service sector. The proportion of workers in secondary industry is used to illustrate labour force growth in heavy industry because light industry accounted for a declining share before the mid-1960s.
8 per cent per annum between 1952 and 1978. Per capita grain output in 1977 was roughly the same as in 1957 and total cotton output remained at the 1965 level (Xue 1981). Farmers often failed to feed themselves adequately during the pre-reform period, in part because state purchases were excessive. Famine was widespread in provinces like Anhui, Guizhou, Henan and Ganshu. Agriculture became a severe bottleneck constraining economic development and industrialisation. By the end of the 1970s these problems had grown to an unbearable level.
Agricultural Reform in China: Getting Institutions Right (Trade and Development) by Yiping Huang