By John K. Tien
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Additional resources for Alloy and Microstructural Design
This study showed that the Widmanstatten α + β structures had improved toughness at all strength levels compared to equiaxed α + β structures, but became decidedly tougher at yield strengths around ~1100 M N / m (—160 ksi). This was suggested to re sult from a pronounced tendency toward crack branching in the Wid manstatten structures. At high strength levels, the work-hardening rates of the equiaxed α + β structures were low and fracture occurred by formation and propagation of a plastically unstable region; the re sulting fracture surface was macroscopically smooth compared to those observed in Widmanstatten structures.
5 % Zr, strengthening is provided by dislocation substruc ture introduced by cold-working. Little attention has been devoted to the role of texture in this material. The Zr is added to retard recovery and recrystallization during elevated temperature service. The precise mechanism of such retardation has not been investigated but it is 2 3 3 43 II High-Strength Nonferrous Alloys suggested that Z r - O clusters will form in this material because of the strong interaction between zirconium and oxygen.
Thus it is clear that a practical upper limit for solid solution strength ening exists for α-phase alloys because of the intervening brittleness problem. This limit is in the 100-110 ksi (700 M N / m ) yield strength range. This can be somewhat improved by texture strengthening; but, since the cleavage plane is near (0001) , the maximum strength direc tion in textured material also corresponds to application of maximum normal stress across the cleavage plane. Thus, even texture strength ening is limited by the intervention of brittle fracture.
Alloy and Microstructural Design by John K. Tien