By Gary Haynes
The quantity includes summaries of evidence, theories, and unsolved difficulties touching on the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of usually huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the United States and approximately 1,000 years later in South the USA. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of humans has ended in the recommendation that foraging people are responsible, even though significant climatic shifts have been additionally happening within the Americas in the course of a few of the extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but now not exact) topics -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; considering then loads of leading edge, interesting new examine has been performed yet has now not but been compiled and summarized. diverse chapters during this quantity supply in-depth resumés of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the USA, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied through stories of good isotopes and anatomical/physiological features resembling development increments in substantial and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic learn approximately large-mammal biology, the purposes of relationship ways to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies referring to human looking of enormous mammals.
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Extra resources for American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene
Paleobiology 28(1):139–154 Buck CE, Bard E (2007) A calendar chronology for Pleistocene mammoth and horse extinction in North America based on Bayesian radiocarbon calibration. Quat Sci Rev 26(17–18):2031–2035 Burney DA, Robinson GS, Burney LP (2003) Sporormiella and the late Holocene extinctions in Madagascar. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(19):10800–10805 CARD (Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database, compiled by R. Morlan). ca/accessed 6/04. Cinq-Mars J, Morlan RE (1999) Bluefish Caves and Old Crow Basin: A new rapport.
J Archaeol Sci 28:411–419 Arnold TG (2002) Radiocarbon dates from the ice-free corridor. Radiocarbon 44(2):437–454 Arslanov Kh, Cook A, Steinar Gulliksen GT, Harkness DD, Kankainen T, Scott EM, Vartanyan S, Zaitseva GI (1998) Consensus dating of mammoth remains from Wrangel Island. pdf 33 Beck MW (1996) On discerning the cause of late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions. Paleobiology 22:91–103 Bement LC, Carter BJ (2003) Clovis bison hunting at the Jake Bluff site, NW Oklahoma. Curr Res Pleistocene 20:20–26 Borrero LA (2003) Taphonomy of the Tres Arroyos 1 Rockshelter, Tierra del Fuego, Chile.
26 hunters, who left behind no campsites or even unambiguous kill and butchering sites for 2,000 years. In defense of this dubious proposition, one could point to the very few putative pre-Clovis sites in the east: Cactus Hill (ca. ), Meadowcroft Rockshelter (ca. , 1999), and, particularly, the ostensible mammoth killsites in Wisconsin (Hebior, Schaeffer, Mud Lake) dated to ca. 13,000–12,500 BP and possibly associated with stone tools of the Chesrow lithic complex (Overstreet and Stafford, 1997; Joyce, 2006).
American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene by Gary Haynes