By Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes
The quantity comprises summaries of evidence, theories, and unsolved difficulties touching on the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of more often than not huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the United States and approximately 1,000 years later in South the US. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of people has ended in the advice that foraging people are guilty, even though significant climatic shifts have been additionally happening within the Americas in the course of a number of the extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but no longer exact) issues -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; on the grounds that then loads of leading edge, fascinating new learn has been performed yet has no longer but been compiled and summarized. varied chapters during this quantity offer in-depth resum?s of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the US, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied through experiences of sturdy isotopes and anatomical/physiological features comparable to development increments in vast and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic examine approximately large-mammal biology, the functions of relationship how to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies bearing on human looking of huge mammals.
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Extra info for American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology)
Two different approaches have been taken recently to surmount this technical problem. Tom Stafford has run dates on individual amino acids that can confidently be assumed to derive from the collagen itself (Stafford, 1994). He has also attempted to exclude contaminants by using an XAD resin filter. However, when dates differ significantly among the various amino acids, it is not always clear which should be preferred. , 2004). , 2004). , 2006). , Megaloceros: a specimen previously dated to 9,430 ± 65 BP yielded new dates of 10,585 ± 65 BP and 10,257 ± 75 BP; another, previously 9,225 ± 85 BP, was dated to 11,495 ± 65 BP and 11,159 ± 74 BP after ultrapurification [Higham, 2004]).
3) There is a puzzling hiatus in the Wrangel Island date sequence from about 12,000 to 7,700 BP (MacPhee, 2003). On the assumption that all the dates are accurate – and there is no obvious reason to reject them – it would appear that the island mammoth population was extirpated at the same time as the mainland extinction, but returned (by swimming? ) 5,000 years later, from some unidentified mainland refugium. (4) While the Wrangel population may have been finally hunted to extinction by humans, the St.
In some earlier periods, evidently, American species (including horse and camel) were able to traverse the land bridge to colonize Eurasia. The possibility must be emphasized that Terminal Pleistocene environmental stress or opportunities might as easily have induced movement of horses westward as the documented migration of elk eastward. , 2002). The result is a radiocarbon record with long hiatuses and sudden reappearances. Notably, horse and muskox disappeared from the Taimyr Peninsula around 12,000 BP only to reappear there millennia later, just after 4,000 BP.
American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology) by Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes