By Ted Wragg
This up-to-date and revised moment variation now contains insurance of the hot instructor appraisal and faculty inspection strategies. utilizing a mixture of case reports, photos and illustrations, foreign schooling professional Ted Wragg exhibits how a variety of humans research classes for various reasons and in several contexts. He offers examples of winning tools which have been hired through lecturers, pupil lecturers, researchers and students.
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For example, the first part of the schedule, which records the type of activity, shows how this works. The observer has to decide the predominant type of activity during the segment, which might have been pupilteacher interaction, or the pupils might have worked alone or in groups with the teacher monitoring. In each one and a half minute segment only one choice is ticked. The illustration shows the box ticked in each of five successive lesson segments. 47 T H E U S E O F Q U A N T I TAT I V E M E T H O D S Activity Teacher solo Teacher-pupil interaction Pupils working, teacher monitoring Pupils working, teacher not monitoring Transition without movement Transition with movement In the first segment the teacher was talking to the whole class, in the second and third there was teacher-pupil interaction, in the fourth segment a changeover took place and the children began to work in their groups, so ‘transition without movement’ is recorded, and in the fifth segment the teacher walked round monitoring pupils’ work.
Central clustering is often the result of uncertainty; it leads raters to score every event or person at points 3, 4 or 5 for fear of stepping out of line if they utilise the whole range. Rating scales are often best employed by observers who will see many classrooms, as they are more likely to be able to build up experience at assigning the grades in different contexts, whereas those who see only one or two teachers may not be sure how to use a particular scale. Sometimes observers will use a measure of frequency, rather than intensity, and concentrate more on actual behaviour instead of personality.
If someone wanted to see how healthy an environment a particular classroom offered, then a high inference approach would be to rate it on certain general features, such as ‘cleanliness’ or ‘health-conscious behaviour’. A low inference ap-proach, however, would concentrate on the occurrence of discrete pieces of behaviour thought to be associated with good or poor health, and could involve the observer noting down how often a pupil sneezed or coughed without using a handkerchief or covering his face, or whether children washed their hands after visiting the toilet.
An Introduction to Classroom Observation by Ted Wragg